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"Energy independence has to be our nation's first and highest priority. We must be determined to achieve this within the next 25 years i.e. by the year 2030." – Abdul Kalam, 2005

Sunday, 6 May 2012

Hydrogen boosting to IC Engines as oxyhydrogen (HHO) - AF



THE THEORY BEHIND HYDROXY BOOSTING IN VEHICLES

Hydrogen fuel enhancement is a term used to describe the supplementation of an internal combustion engine (ICE) with hydrogen to improve fuel efficiency and power. By supplementing an engine's normal fuel with hydrogen / compressed natural gas blends (H2CNG or HCNG), the exhaust emissions of the ICE can be dramatically improved. Hydrogen injection is similar to both propane injection and nitrous oxide injection.
HCNG (or H2CNG) is a mixture of compressed natural gas and 4-9 percent hydrogen by energy. Hydrogen contents of less than 50% in the HCNG blend have leakage and flammability risks similar to those of CNG alone. With the hydrogen being part of the mixture, there are no special precautions needed to avoid hydrogen embrittlement of the materials coming in contact with the mixture. HCNG stations can be found at Hynor (Norway) and the BC hydrogen highway in Canada.
Automotive fuel enhancement systems inject either a hydrogen-rich mixture, or pure hydrogen into the intake manifold of the engine. In some cases, this is combined with air/fuel ratio and timing modifications. A small amount of hydrogen added to the intake air-fuel charge permits the engine to operate with leaner air-to-fuel mixture than otherwise possible. As the air/fuel mix approaches 30:1 the temperature of combustion substantially decreases effectively mitigating NOx production.
Under idle conditions power is only required for extraneous components other than the drive train, therefore fuel consumption can be minimized. A 50% reduction in gasoline consumption at idle was reported by numerically analyzing the effect of hydrogen enriched gasoline on the performance, emissions and fuel consumption of a small spark-ignition engine.
Under most loads near stoichiometric air/fuel mixtures are still required for normal acceleration, although under idle conditions, reduced loads and moderate acceleration hydrogen addition in combination with lean burn engine conditions can guarantee a regular running of the engine with many advantages in terms of emissions levels and fuel consumption.
Increases in engine efficiency are more dominant than the energy loss incurred in generating hydrogen. This is specifically with regard to use of a hydrogen reformer. Overall computational analysis has marked the possibility of operating with high air overabundance (lean or ultra-lean mixtures) without a substantial performance decrease but with great advantages on pollution emissions and fuel consumption.
Overall comparing the properties of hydrogen and gasoline, it is possible to underline the possibilities, for hydrogen fueled engines of operating with very lean (or ultra-lean) mixtures, obtaining interesting fuel economy and emissions reductions. The concept of hydrogen enriched gasoline as a fuel for internal combustion engines has a greater interest than pure hydrogen powered engines because it involves fewer modifications to the engines and their fueling systems.
Hydrogen fuel enhancement from electrolysis of water can produce fuel efficiency improvements on the order of 4% and similar modest reductions in emissions, and is currently in use in Canada
A simplified single-step combustion reaction is represented as:
[FUEL] + [HYDROGEN] + [AIR] → HC + CO + CO2 + H2O + NOx
Oxyhydrogen
Oxyhydrogen is a mixture of hydrogen and oxygen gases, typically in a 2:1 atomic ratio; the same proportion as water. At normal temperature and pressure, oxyhydrogen can burn when it is between about 4% and 94% hydrogen by volume, with a flame temperature around 2000 C.



ELECTROLYSIS OF WATER
Electrolysis of water is the decomposition of water (H2O) into oxygen (O2) and hydrogen gas (H2) due to an electric current being passed through the water.

An electrical power source is connected to two electrodes, or two plates (typically made from some inert metal such as platinum or stainless steel) which are placed in the water. Hydrogen will appear at the cathode (the negatively charged electrode, where electrons enter the water), and oxygen will appear at the anode (the positively charged electrode). Assuming ideal faradaic efficiency, the amount of hydrogen generated is twice the number of moles of oxygen, and both are proportional to the total electrical charge conducted by the solution. However, in many cells competing side reactions dominate, resulting in different products and less than ideal faradaic efficiency.
Electrolysis of pure water requires excess energy in the form of over potential to overcome various activation barriers. Without the excess energy the electrolysis of pure water occurs very slowly or not at all. This is in part due to the limited self-ionization of water. Pure water has an electrical conductivity about one millionth that of seawater. Many electrolytic cells may also lack the requisite electro catalysts. The efficiency of electrolysis is increased through the addition of an electrolyte (such as a salt, an acid or a base) and the use of electro catalysts.
In pure water at the negatively charged cathode, a reduction reaction takes place, with electrons (e−) from the cathode being given to hydrogen captions to form hydrogen gas (the half reaction balanced with acid):
Reduction at cathode: 2 H+(aq) + 2e− → H2(g)
At the positively charged anode, an oxidation reaction occurs, generating oxygen gas and giving electrons to the anode to complete the circuit:
Anode (oxidation): 2 H2O(l) → O2(g) + 4 H+(aq) + 4e−
The same half reactions can also be balanced with base as listed below. Not all half reactions must be balanced with acid or base. Many do like the oxidation or reduction of water listed here. To add half reactions they must both be balanced with either acid or base.
Cathode (reduction): 2 H2O(l) + 2e− → H2(g) + 2 OH-(aq)
Anode (oxidation): 4 OH- (aq) → O2(g) + 2 H2O(l) + 4 e−
Combining either half reaction pair yields the same overall decomposition of water into oxygen and hydrogen:
Overall reaction: 2 H2O(l) → 2 H2(g) + O2(g)
The number of hydrogen molecules produced is thus twice the number of oxygen molecules. Assuming equal temperature and pressure for both gases, the produced hydrogen gas has therefore twice the volume of the produced oxygen gas. The number of electrons pushed through the water is twice the number of generated hydrogen molecules and four times the number of generated oxygen molecules.

THERMODYNAMICS OF THE PROCESS
Decomposition of pure water into hydrogen and oxygen at standard temperature and pressure is not favorable in thermodynamic terms.
Anode (oxidation): 2 H2O(l) → O2(g) + 4 H+(aq) + 4e−    Eoox = -1.23 V (Eored = 1.23 ) red = 1.23)
Cathode (reduction): 2 H+(aq) + 2e− → H2(g)    Eored = 0.00 V
Thus, the standard potential of the water electrolysis cell is -1.23 V at 25 °C at pH 0 (H+=1.0M). It is also -1.23 V at 25 °C at pH 7 (H+ = 1.0×10−7 M) based on the Nernst Equation.
The negative voltage indicates the Gibbs free energy for electrolysis of water is greater than zero for these reactions. This can be found using the G = -nFE equation from chemical kinetics, where n is the moles of electrons and F is the Faraday constant. The reaction cannot occur without adding necessary energy, usually supplied by an external electrical power source.

PULSE WIDTH MODULATOR
Pulse-width modulation (PWM), or pulse-duration modulation (PDM), is a commonly used technique for controlling power to inertial electrical devices, made practical by modern electronic power switches.
<Circuit and working>

JOURNAL PAPER REFERENCES
 The following list of references show the work that has been on done the properties of Hydroxy/HHO Gas and it’s application as engine combustion enhancer via on-board electrolysis systems.

On-Board Hydroxy Engine Enhancement Technical Papers:



Al-Rousan AA, “Reduction of fuel consumption in gasoline engines by introducing HHO gas into intake manifold”, Int J Hydrogen Energy (2010), doi:10.1016/j.ijhydene.2010.08.144

S. Samuel and G. McCormick, “Hydrogen Enriched Diesel Combustion”, SAE Paper, 2010012190 (2010).

R. Chiriac et al, “Effects of Gasoline-Air Enrichment with HRG Gas on Efficiency and Emissions of a SI Engine”, SAE Paper, 2006013431 (2006).

Z. Dulger and K. Ozcelik, “Fuel Economy Improvement by on Board Electrolytic Hydrogen Production”, Int J Hydrogen Energy 25:895-897 (2000).

G. Balan, “Field study of the effects of the hydrogen generating system on power, fuel economy and emissions in gasoline and diesel engines”, Proceedings of the 1999 Spring Technical Conference of the ASME Internal Combustion Engine Division, Columbus, IN, Paper No. 99-ICE-178.

Chaiwongsa P, et al. Effective Hydrogen Generator Testing for on-site small engine. PhysicsProcedia (2) (2009) 93-100.

Hydroxy Gas Properties and Composition Technical Papers:


C. Eckman, “Plasma Orbital Expansion of the Electrons in Water”, Proceedings of the 17th Annual Natural Philosophy Alliance Conference, Long Beach, CA, Vol. 6, No. 2.

H. Ymamoto, “Explanation of anomalous combustion of Brown’s Gas using Dr. Mills’ Hydrino Theory ”, SAE Paper, 1999-01-3325 (1999).

O. Hung-Kuk, “Some comments on implosion and Brown gas”, J Materials Processing Tech 95:8-9 (1999).

Y. Hacohen and E. Sher, “An internal combustion SI engine fueled with hydrogen-enriched gasoline”, Israel Journal of Technology 25:41-54 (1989).

Park et al, “Vitrification of Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator Fly ash using Brown’s Gas”, Energy & Fuels 19:258-262 (2005).



6 comments:

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  2. A lot of people don't understand the concepts surrounding HHO Dry Cells but you really did hit it on the head. Good job.

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  4. 1) could u please tell me 1 ltr of water can produce how much oxy-hyd..
    2) can oxy-hyd be compress and stored in LPG Tank


    thanks in advance

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